Grafenort concentration camp
Click View Log from the Manage Sessions page to see further details. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product GDP ; the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.
SQL Syntax and Semantics
The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan. This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.
Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th. Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.
Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.
This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. Mother's mean age at first birth: This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.
The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes. The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.
This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.
This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.
It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.
They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f. This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.
In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is.
This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country. Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.
This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States.
These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community.
This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age.
Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.
Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.
Unemployment, youth ages This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year. This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example: Also see the Terminology note.
This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.
Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.
Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.
For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood.
This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. Independence Day, 15 September The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. This entry provides the description of a country's legal system.
A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.
The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court s , the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.
A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia consists of 13 magistrates including the court president and organized into 3 chambers ; note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad consists of 5 titular magistrates and 5 substitute magistrates.
Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Courts of Appeal; magistrates elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the public University of San Carlos, and 1 by the Assembly of the College of Attorneys and Notaries; judges elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term.
This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.
Council of Ministers appointed by the president. This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.
The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted. This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou. Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.
The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag.
Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition.
Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.
GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.
The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry.
Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Doing so expresses the literal as a character literal. Unsigned integers are assumed to be positive. To express a decimal literal, specify a decimal number. Unsigned numbers are assumed to be positive. No spaces are allowed between the integer, the letter E, and the sign of the exponent. You can include and set variables in SQL statements. To do this, include the variable at the beginning of the SQL statement.
If you are executing a query from the nqcmd utility, use a colon as a delimiter. Otherwise, you can use either a semicolon or a colon. This section contains information about aggregate functions, running aggregate functions, and time series functions:.
Aggregate functions perform operations on multiple values to create summary results. This function aggregates columns based on the level or levels you specify. You can optionally specify multiple levels. You cannot specify a level from a dimension that contains levels that are being used as the measure level for the measure you specified in the first argument. This function calculates the average mean value of an expression in a result set. It must take a numeric expression as its argument.
Note that the denominator of AVG is the number of rows aggregated. This function calculates the average mean of all distinct values of an expression. This function ranks the lowest n values of the expression argument from 1 to n , 1 corresponding to the lowest numeric value. Represents the bottom number of rankings displayed in the result set, 1 being the lowest rank. This function calculates the number of rows having a nonnull value for the expression. The expression is typically a column name, in which case the number of rows with nonnull values for that column is returned.
For example, if a table named Facts contained ,, rows, the sample request would return the results shown:. This function calculates the maximum value highest numeric value of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. This function calculates the median middle value of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. When there are an even number of rows, the median is the mean of the two middle rows.
This function always returns a double. This function calculates the minimum value lowest numeric value of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. This function determines the rank of a value in terms of a user-specified range. It returns integers to represent any range of ranks. In other words, the resulting sorted data set is broken into several tiles where there are roughly an equal number of values in each tile.
If the numExpr argument is not null, the function returns an integer that represents a rank within the requested range. This function calculates a percent rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument.
The percentile rank ranges are from 0 1st percentile to 1 th percentile , inclusive. This function calculates the rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument.
The highest number is assigned a rank of 1, and each successive rank is assigned the next consecutive integer 2, 3, 4, If certain values are equal, they are assigned the same rank for example, 1, 1, 1, 4, 5, 5, This function returns the standard deviation for a set of values.
The return type is always a double. This function returns the standard deviation for a set of values using the computational formula for population variance and standard deviation. This function calculates the sum obtained by adding up all values satisfying the numeric expression argument. This function calculates the sum obtained by adding all of the distinct values satisfying the numeric expression argument.
This function ranks the highest n values of the expression argument from 1 to n , 1 corresponding to the highest numeric value. The TOPN function operates on the values returned in the result set. A request can contain only one TOPN expression. Represents the top number of rankings displayed in the result set, 1 being the highest rank.
Running aggregate functions are similar to functional aggregates in that they take a set of records as input, but instead of outputting the single aggregate for the entire set of records, they output the aggregate based on records encountered so far. This section describes the running aggregate functions supported by the Oracle BI Server. This function calculates a moving average mean for the last n rows of data in the result set, inclusive of the current row. The average for the first row is equal to the numeric expression for the first row.
The average for the second row is calculated by taking the average of the first two rows of data. The average for the third row is calculated by taking the average of the first three rows of data, and so on until you reach the n th row, where the average is calculated based on the last n rows of data.
Represents the average of the last n rows of data. This function calculates a moving sum for the last n rows of data, inclusive of the current row. The sum for the first row is equal to the numeric expression for the first row. The sum for the second row is calculated by taking the sum of the first two rows of data.
The sum for the third row is calculated by taking the sum of the first three rows of data, and so on. When the n th row is reached, the sum is calculated based on the last n rows of data. This example shows a query that uses the MSUM function, along with example query results. This function calculates a running sum based on records encountered so far.
This example shows a query that uses the RSUM function, along with example query results. This function takes a set of records as input and counts the number of records encountered so far. This function takes a set of records as input and shows the maximum value based on records encountered so far. The specified data type must be one that can be ordered.
The data type must be one that has an associated sort order. This example shows a query that uses the RMAX function, along with example query results. This function takes a set of records as input and shows the minimum value based on records encountered so far. This example shows a query that uses the RMIN function, along with example query results. Time series functions operate on time-oriented dimensions. To use time series functions on a particular dimension, you have to designate the dimension as a Time dimension and set one or more keys at one or more levels as chronological keys.
This function is a time series aggregation function that calculates the aggregated value from the current time back to a specified time period. For example, AGO can produce sales for every month of the current quarter and the corresponding quarter-ago sales. The unit of time offset used in the AGO function is called the level of the function.
This value is determined by the measure level of the measures in its first argument, the AGO level optionally specified within the function , and the query level of the query to which the function belongs. The measure level for the measure can be set in the Administration Tool. If a measure level has been set for the measure used in the function, the measure level is used as the level of the function. The measure level is also called the storage grain of the function. The AGO level can be optionally specified as the second argument of the function.
If a measure level has not been set in the Administration Tool, but an AGO level has been specified, the AGO level is used as the level of the function. The AGO level is also called the time series grain of the function. If a measure level has not been set in the Administration Tool, and if no AGO level has been set explicitly in the function, the query level is used as the level of the function. The query level is also called the query grain of the function. This function computes the aggregate of a measure over the period starting x units of time and ending y units of time from the current time.
Precede the integer with a minus sign - to indicate an offset into the past. To specify the current time, enter 0. This option is useful when there are multiple hierarchies in a time dimension, or when you want to distinguish between multiple time dimensions. For example, if the query level is day but you want to find the sum of the previous and current months, use the following:.
This value is determined by the measure level of the measures in its first argument and the query level of the query to which the function belongs. If a measure level has not been set in the Administration Tool, then the query level is used. This function is a time series aggregation function that aggregates a measure from the beginning of a specified time period to the currently displayed time. For example, this function can calculate Year to Date sales.
Instead, use the CAST function. See "CAST" for more information. String functions perform various character manipulations, and they operate on character strings. If the character expression evaluates to multiple characters, the ASCII code corresponding to the first character in the expression is returned.
This function returns the length, in bits, of a specified string. Each Unicode character is 2 bytes in length equal to 16 bits. This function converts a numeric value between 0 and to the character value corresponding to the ASCII code. This function returns the length, in number of characters, of a specified string.
Leading and trailing blanks are not counted in the length of the string. There are two forms of this function. The first form concatenates two character strings. The second form uses the character string concatenation character to concatenate more than two character strings.
First, strExpr2 is concatenated with strExpr3 to produce an intermediate string, then both strExpr1 and the intermediate string are concatenated by the CONCAT function to produce the final string. This function inserts a specified character string into a specified location in another character string. Identifies the target character string. Identifies the character string to be inserted into the target string. In the first string, starting at the second position occupied by the number 2 , three characters the numbers 2 , 3 , and 4 are replaced by the string abcd.
The length is returned excluding any trailing blank characters. This function returns the numeric position of a character string in another character string. If the character string is not found in the string being searched, the function returns a value of 0. Identifies the string for which to search. Identifies the string to be searched. The numeric position to return is determined by counting the first character in the string as occupying position 1, regardless of the value of the integer argument.
This example returns 4 as the numeric position of the letter d in the character string abcdef. The search begins with the letter c, the third character in the string. The numeric position to return is determined by counting the letter 'a' as occupying position 1. This example returns 0, because the letter b occurs in the string before the starting position to begin the search.
This function returns the number of bits, in base 8 units number of bytes , of a specified string. This function returns the numeric position of strExpr1 in a character expression. If strExpr1 is not found, the function returns 0. Identifies the string to search for in the target string. Identifies the target string to be searched. This example returns 0 as the position of the number 9 in the character string , because the number 9 is not found.
This function repeats a specified expression n times. This function replaces one or more characters from a specified character expression with one or more other characters. This is the string in which characters are to be replaced. This second string identifies the characters from the first string that are to be replaced.
This third string specifies the characters to substitute into the first string. These unstable radicals can attack the amino acid residues, leading to oxidation of side chains e. Cells have mechanisms that can refold or degrade protein aggregates. However, as cells age, these control mechanisms are weakened and the cell is less able to resolve the aggregates.
The hypothesis that protein aggregation is a causative process in aging is testable now since some models of delayed aging are in hand. If the development of protein aggregates was an aging independent process, slowing down aging will show no effect on the rate of proteotoxicity over time. However, if aging is associated with decline in the activity of protective mechanisms against proteotoxicity, the slow aging models would show reduced aggregation and proteotoxicity.
To address this problem several toxicity assays have been done in C. The validity of this approach has been tested and confirmed in mammals as reducing the activity of the IGF-1 signaling pathway protected Alzheimer's model mice from the behavioral and biochemical impairments associated with the disease.
Several studies have shown that cellular responses to protein aggregation are well-regulated and organized. Protein aggregates localize to specific areas in the cell, and research has been done on these localizations in prokaryotes E. The aggregates in bacteria asymmetrically end up at one of the poles of the cell, the "older pole. This provides a natural selection mechanism for reducing protein aggregates in the bacterial population.
Most of the protein aggregates in yeast cells get refolded by molecular chaperones. However, some aggregates, such as the oxidatively damaged proteins or the proteins marked for degradation, cannot be refolded. Rather, there are two compartments that they can end up in. Protein aggregates can be localized at the Juxtanuclear quality-control compartment JUNQ , which is near the nuclear membrane, or at the Insoluble Protein deposit IPOD , near the vacuole in yeast cells.
The aggregated and insoluble proteins localize at IPOD as a more permanent deposition. There is evidence that the proteins here may be removed by autophagy. In mammalian cells, these protein aggregates are termed "aggresomes" and they are formed when the cell is diseased. This is because aggregates tend to form when there are heterologous proteins present in the cell, which can arise when the cell is mutated.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase is able to recognize misfolded proteins and ubiquinate them. HDAC6 can then bind to the ubiquitin and the motor protein dynein to bring the marked aggregates to the microtubule organizing center MTOC. There, they pack together into a sphere that surrounds the MTOC. They bring over chaperones and proteasomes and activate autophagy. There are two main protein quality control systems in the cell that are responsible for eliminating protein aggregates.