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Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. History of Taiwan and History of the Republic of China. A political and economic dictionary of East Asia. The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world. The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the " Taiwan Miracle ".

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Comment cannot be longer than characters. Name contains invalid characters. Name cannot be longer than characters. Thank you for submitting your comment! All comments are moderated and may take up to 24 hours to be posted. Subscribe to your favorite pornstars, channels, and collections. Taiwan girl dancing 1. Please send any copyright reports to: Only one flag request every ten seconds is allowed. Please try again later. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period.

In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia modern-day Anping , Tainan on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", [31] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly Taivoan people , written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang , Tayowan , Teijoan , etc.

The area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".

The name also appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since , and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization. Taiwan was joined to the mainland in the Late Pleistocene , until sea levels rose about 10, years ago.

Fragmentary human remains dated 20, to 30, years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artifacts of a Paleolithic culture. Around 6, years ago, Taiwan was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China. This has led linguists to propose Taiwan as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across Southeast Asia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Han Chinese fishermen began settling in the Penghu islands in the 13th century. In , the company established a stronghold called Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, Tainan. Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent. In , the Spanish Empire landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung and Tamsui , as a base to extend their trading. This colonial period lasted 16 years until , when the last Spanish fortress fell to Dutch forces.

Following the fall of the Ming dynasty , Koxinga Zheng Chenggong , a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort Zeelandia in , expelling the Dutch Empire and military from the island. Koxinga established the Kingdom of Tungning — , with his capital at Tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing , who ruled from to , and Zheng Keshuang , who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty era.

In , following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang of southern Fujian , the Qing dynasty formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. The Qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights. Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter Taiwan. The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains.

During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese from different regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou , and between southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines. The French occupied Keelung on 1 October , but were repulsed from Tamsui a few days later.

The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the Keelung Campaign ended in stalemate. The Pescadores Campaign , beginning on 31 March , was a French victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both Keelung and the Penghu archipelago after the end of the war. In , the Qing upgraded the island's administration from Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province to Fujian-Taiwan-Province , the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at Taipei.

This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad. Inhabitants on Taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China.

Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October Japanese colonial rule was instrumental in the industrialization of the island, extending the railroads and other transportation networks, building an extensive sanitation system, and establishing a formal education system.

By , Taiwan was the seventh greatest sugar producer in the world. After suppressing Chinese guerrillas in the first decade of their rule, Japanese authorities engaged in a series of bloody campaigns against the mountain aboriginals, culminating in the Musha Incident of Around , the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the Japanese Empire and people were taught to see themselves as Japanese under the Kominka Movement, during which time Taiwanese culture and religion were outlawed and the citizens were encouraged to adopt Japanese surnames.

Taiwan held strategic wartime importance as Imperial Japanese military campaigns first expanded and then contracted over the course of World War II. During World War II, tens of thousands of Taiwanese served in the Japanese military [66] Over 2, women, euphemistically called " comfort women ", were forced into sexual slavery for Imperial Japanese troops. The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwanese ports. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centres throughout Taiwan, such as Kaohsiung and Keelung, were targets of heavy raids by American bombers.

While Taiwan was still under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was founded on the mainland on 1 January , following the Xinhai Revolution , which began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October , replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism —28 , Japanese invasion —45 , and the Chinese Civil War —50 , with central authority strongest during the Nanjing decade —37 , when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang KMT under an authoritarian one-party state.

Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be " Taiwan Retrocession Day ", but the Allies considered Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to be under military occupation and still under Japanese sovereignty until , when the Treaty of San Francisco took effect. This introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan. The ROC administration of Taiwan under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation.

Furthermore, cultural and linguistic conflicts between the two groups quickly led to the loss of popular support for the new government, while the mass movement led by the working committee of the Communist Party also aimed to bring down the Kuomintang government. Mainstream estimates of the number killed range from 18, to 30, Those killed were mainly members of the Taiwanese elite.

Throughout the months of , a series of Chinese Communist offensives led to the capture of its capital Nanjing on 23 April and the subsequent defeat of the Nationalist army on the mainland, and the Communists founded the People's Republic of China on 1 October. On 7 December , after the loss of four capitals, Chiang evacuated his Nationalist government to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek.

In addition, the ROC government took to Taipei many national treasures and much of China's gold reserves and foreign currency reserves. After losing most of the mainland, the Kuomintang held remaining control of Tibet , the portions of Qinghai , Xinjiang , and Yunnan provinces along with the Hainan Island until before the Communists subsequently captured these territories.

The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all "China", which it defined to include mainland China , Taiwan, Outer Mongolia and other areas. On mainland China, the victorious Communists claimed they ruled the sole and only China which they claimed included Taiwan and that the Republic of China no longer existed. Martial law, declared on Taiwan in May , [84] continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan. It was not repealed until , [84] and was used as a way to suppress the political opposition in the intervening years.

Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated. In law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families. President Ma Ying-jeou made an official apology in , expressing hope that there will never be a tragedy similar to White Terror. However, in the conflict between North Korea and South Korea , which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in , escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S.

Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China.

As the Chinese Civil War continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the s on the China coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids. During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in September , Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island.

During the s and s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology oriented. This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle , was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.

Up until the s, the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law , for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media. Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist.

In , a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day. Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition. Chiang Ching-kuo , Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began to liberalize the political system in the mids.

In , the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui , a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president. A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan martial law was lifted on Penghu in , Matsu island in and Kinmen island in With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo.

After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo in January , Lee Teng-hui succeeded him and became the first Taiwan-born president. Lee continued to democratize the government and decrease the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese.

Under Lee, Taiwan underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan-China viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity. Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan.

Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly a former supreme legislative body defunct in , [99] elected in to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa. Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted.

Democratic reforms continued in the s, with Lee Teng-hui re-elected in , in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC.

In ,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification", [] the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite. Polarized politics has emerged in Taiwan with the formation of the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties led by the KMT, favouring eventual Chinese reunification , and the Pan-Green Coalition of parties led by the DPP, favouring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwanese independence.

No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply. On 30 September , the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country".

It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China. The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan in the January legislative elections , while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of " mutual nondenial ".

Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China attained since joining the World Trade Organization. However, some analysts say that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC have not been reduced.

President Tsai called upon the international community to help Taiwan to preserve its democracy despite the threatening language used against Taiwan by PRC President Xi Jinping. On 24 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that current marriage laws have been violating the Constitution by denying Taiwanese same-sex couples the right to marry. The Court ruled that if the Legislative Yuan does not pass adequate amendments to Taiwanese marriage laws within two years, same-sex marriages will automatically become legitimate in Taiwan.

Its shape is similar to a sweet potato , giving rise to the slang term hanji "sweet potato" in Hokkien used by Taiwanese Hokkien speakers to refer to people of native Taiwanese descent. The island is characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of rugged mountains running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island, and the flat to gently rolling Chianan Plains in the west that are also home to most of Taiwan's population.

More distant islands of the Republic of China are the Kinmen , Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian , with a total area of Taiwan lies on the Tropic of Cancer , and its general climate is marine tropical.

Typhoons are most common in July, August and September. The island of Taiwan lies in a complex tectonic area between the Yangtze Plate to the west and north, the Okinawa Plate on the north-east, and the Philippine Mobile Belt on the east and south. The upper part of the crust on the island is primarily made up of a series of terranes , mostly old island arcs which have been forced together by the collision of the forerunners of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate.

These have been further uplifted as a result of the detachment of a portion of the Eurasian Plate as it was subducted beneath remnants of the Philippine Sea Plate, a process which left the crust under Taiwan more buoyant. The east and south of Taiwan are a complex system of belts formed by, and part of the zone of, active collision between the North Luzon Trough portion of the Luzon Volcanic Arc and South China, where accreted portions of the Luzon Arc and Luzon forearc form the eastern Coastal Range and parallel inland Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan respectively.

The major seismic faults in Taiwan correspond to the various suture zones between the various terranes. These have produced major quakes throughout the history of the island. On 21 September , a 7. The political and legal statuses of Taiwan are contentious issues. It has not formally renounced its claim to the mainland, but ROC government publications have increasingly downplayed it.

Internationally, there is controversy on whether the ROC still exists as a state or a defunct state per international law due to the lack of wide diplomatic recognition. The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should Taiwan declare de jure independence; it is the official PRC policy to use force to ensure unification if peaceful unification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law , and for this reason there are substantial military installations on the Fujian coast.

It uses this policy to prevent the international recognition of the ROC as an independent sovereign state, meaning that Taiwan participates in international forums under the name " Chinese Taipei ". With the emergence of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly often on the island. Before , the foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centres of power all claimed legitimacy.

This situation changed after the defeat of the Peiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which led to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China. Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the s. The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan. The United States remains one of the main allies of the country and, through the Taiwan Relations Act passed in , has continued selling arms and providing military training to the Armed Forces.

As a consequence, the PRC threatened the US with economic sanctions and warned that their co-operation on international and regional issues could suffer.

The official position of the United States is that the PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations. Each year since , the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry, but its applications have not made it past committee.

Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization , represented by a government-funded organization, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy TFD under the name "Taiwan".

Most member states , including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC.

Within Taiwan, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition. The KMT, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public.

The Democratic Progressive Party , the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because its members and the public would not accept the risk of provoking the PRC. The president replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the " Consensus ", currently accepted by both the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, as a temporary measure until a solution becomes available.

On 27 September , Taiwanese premier William Lai said that he was a "political worker who advocates Taiwan independence", but that as Taiwan was an independent country called the Republic of China, it had no need to declare independence. The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People , which states that the ROC "shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people.

The constitution was drafted before the fall of mainland China to the Communist Party of China. It was created by the KMT for the purpose of all of its claimed territory, including Taiwan, even though the Communist Party boycotted the drafting of the constitution.

The constitution went into effect on 25 December Political reforms beginning in the late s and continuing through the early s liberalized the country and transformed into a multiparty democracy. Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, suspending constitutional components that were originally meant for the whole of China. This process of amendment continues. In May , a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms.

These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot. The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president , who is elected by popular vote for a maximum of 2 four-year terms on the same ticket as the vice-president. The president has authority over the Yuan. The president appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet , including a premier , who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies.

Members serve four-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly , as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college , held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.

The premier is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the legislature can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power. After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in , legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.

This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the president rather than the premier, even though the constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the president's executive power. The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices.

The highest court, the Supreme Court , consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life. In , a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process.

There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges. Capital punishment is still used in Taiwan, although efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions. The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors controls the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old imperial examination system used in dynastic China. The tension between China and Taiwan colours most of the political life, and any government move towards "Taiwan independence" is met by threat of military attack from the PRC. The political scene is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan should relate to China or the PRC, referred to as cross-Strait relations.

It is the main political difference between two camps: It regards Taiwan as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC , opposes the definition that Taiwan is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan independence. Thus, in September , the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a " normal country ".

It called also for general use of " Taiwan " as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the "Republic of China". Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC. They favour eventual re-unification of China.

Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo , while refusing immediate reunification. The dominant political issue in Taiwan is its relationship with the PRC. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China.

The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links. Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in July under the current KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues.

Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. In early , President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption. The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believes the president should resign.

The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world. Taiwan's leaders, including President Tsai and Premier William Lai , have repeatedly accused China of spreading fake news via social media to create divisions in Taiwanese society, influence voters and support candidates more sympathetic to Beijing ahead of the Taiwanese local elections.

Another significant fraction descends from Han Chinese who immigrated from mainland China in the late s and early s. The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones.

Since democratization and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity as opposed to Taiwanese identity as a subset of a Chinese identity is often at the heart of political debates. Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence.

In the latest survey conducted by National Chengchi University in and published in early , It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army. Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army. Today, Taiwan maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defence against the constant threat of invasion by the People's Liberation Army under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China.

This law gives green light to the use of military force when certain Chinese Red Lines formulated in the Anti-Secession Law are crossed like endangering citizens of the People's Republic of China.

As this mission has shifted to defence because the strength of People's Republic of China has massively increased, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy.

Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.

The ROC began a force reduction program, Jingshi An translated to streamlining program , to scale down its military from a level of , in to , in It also decided to modernize both defensive and offensive capabilities. Taipei still keeps a large military apparatus relative to the island's population: Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds.

However, Japan has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear. According to the constitution, the territory of the ROC is according to its "existing national boundaries".

When the ROC retreated to Taiwan in , its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions.

They were placed under Kaohsiung administration after the retreat to Taiwan. Since , the government has made some changes in the area under its control. Taipei became a special municipality in and Kaohsiung in The two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government Fujian in and Taiwan in And in , Taoyuan County was also upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality.

This brought the top-level divisions to their current state: According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities also apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million. The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the " Taiwan Miracle ". Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought changes in the public and private sectors, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island.

The Japanese also improved public education and made it compulsory for all residents of Taiwan. By , hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan. To isolate Taiwan from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and began a price stabilization program.

These efforts significantly slowed inflation. The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution , attempting to produce imported goods domestically. In , with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States began an aid program which resulted in fully stabilized prices by Under the combined stimulus of the land reform and the agricultural development programs, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 4 per cent from to , which was greater than the population growth, 3.

Taiwan's HDI in is 0. In , Chiang Ching-kuo implemented the Ten Major Construction Projects , the beginning foundations that helped Taiwan transform into its current export driven economy. Since the s, a number of Taiwan-based technology firms have expanded their reach around the world.

Well-known international technology companies headquartered in Taiwan include personal computer manufacturers Acer Inc. Sie können natürlich die Charts von Dutzenden Aktien im Auge behalten. Denn ein Index enthält gleich eine ganze Reihe von Aktien.

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