Although very angered by his ex-wife's accusations, he tended to respond passively and did not want to challenge her directly At times, however, his anger would erupt during confrontations by her. The custody of the children was subsequently awarded to the father.
In June , Bild celebrated its 60th anniversary by giving away free newspapers to almost all of Germany's 41 million households. Bild said Guinness World Records in Germany has certified the print run as "the largest circulation for the free special edition of a newspaper". From the outset, the editorial drift was conservative and nationalist. Sowjetische Besatzungszone or SBZ.
The usage continued well into the s, when Bild began to use the GDR's official name cautiously, putting it in quotation marks. Bild along with fellow Springer tabloid B. After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War in Europe, Bild's editorial stance seems to have become more centrist.
Despite its general support for Germany's conservative parties and especially former chancellor Helmut Kohl , its rhetoric, still populist in tone, is less fierce than it was thirty years ago. Its traditionally less conservative Sunday paper Bild am Sonntag even supported Gerhard Schröder , a Social Democrat , in his bid for chancellor in In , Bild started to cooperate with fast-food giant McDonald's to sell the tabloid at its 1, fast food restaurants in Germany. The cooperation still goes on, often enough by advertising the restaurant chain in "news" articles.
On 9 March Bild announced the elimination of the "Page One Girls", instead moving its fleshy photos to its inside pages. Its motto , prominently displayed below the logo, is unabhängig, überparteilich "independent, nonpartisan". Another slogan used prominently in advertising is Bild dir deine Meinung!
The foreign locations cater mostly for German tourists and expatriates. It is argued Bild' s thirst for sensationalism results in the terrorizing of prominent celebrities and stories are frequently based on the most dubious evidence.
The journalistic standards of Bild are the subject of frequent criticism. The Berlin offices have a storey paternoster lift, whose continued operation was vigorously defended editorially by the newspaper. Edit Read in another language Bild. For the surname, see Bild surname. For other uses of "Bild", see Bild disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Rolf von Bargen — Tanit Koch  . The father was a 24 year old blue-collar worker whose work often necessitated that lie be out of town for three to four months at a time. Both clinical evaluation and psychological testing suggested a somewhat immature, narcissistic, and impulsive young man.
He viewed Iris ex-wife as deceitful, unpredictable, and emotionally volatile. Although he had had two DWI's, he tended to minimize his drinking pattern and deny that Ire had a problem. A detailed psychosexual history was essentially unremarkable.
He had dated relatively infrequently and tended to be attracted to women for superficial attributes. His involvement with M's mother was his first serious relationship.
There was no history of sexually inappropriate behavior. The mother was a 24 year old woman who had worked occasionally as a clerical worker. At the time of the evaluation she lived with her parents, who supplemented the child support payments and funded her protracted legal battle with her ex-husband. The mother's family was dominated by the maternal grandmother from whom the mother had never emancipated. Psychological testing and clinical interview suggested a person with strong narcissistic, histrionic, and dependent traits.
She appeared willing to exploit others without regard to their feelings. She had a long history of avoiding disapproval by deflecting blame to others. The extensive legal file seemed to document her willingness to fabricate data to prevent her daughter from visiting her father.
Many of her allegations had some element of truth but always represented the worst possible interpretation of her ex-husband's behavior or character. A few months before the allegations about sexual abuse, the mother had called the local police department, and discovered there was an outstanding warrant for the father because he had failed to show for a summons on a DWI.
She waited until the father had made arrangements to pick up their daughter for a visit, notified the local police, and arranged to have him arrested as he appeared for the visit.
M had a history of constipation following her visits with her father. Several hours after her return from one visit, and after having played in a wading pool with several other children, M was noticed to have several abrasions on her back.
Later that same day, she was described as having a purplish protrusion of her anus at which time M stated that her father "hurt my butt. However, a later colposcopic exam of the anus showed multiple angulations, suggestive of repealed anal penetration, but also occurring frequently in children without a history of anal penetration. A thorough psychiatric evaluation of this family concluded that there was evidence of parental alienation syndrome and did not substantiate the likelihood of sexual abuse.
M was referred to an experienced female child therapist. M subsequently revealed in more detail that the father had poked her in the anus with his finger an several occasions when he was in his bedroom at the grandparents' home.
However, M gave a different description on re-evaluation with the original evaluator. She had no signs of sexualized behavior and in all other ways her development was progressing normally. She seemed acutely aware of her mother's dislike of her father.
It was concluded that this case represented parental alienation syndrome. C was a sixteen year old girl, D a twelve year old boy, and E a nine year old girl at the time of the evaluation which occurred a year and a half after the marital separation. All three children were refusing to have any contact with their father and had not seen him for over a year at the time of the evaluation.
Prior to the separation. There was evidence of poor supervision and lack of involvement by both parents during that time.
However, all three children had been very attached to their father by all reports. The father initiated the separation after sixteen years of marriage because he had become involved with a woman with whom he worked. The mother was distraught over the separation and experienced a brief episode of psychotic depression characterized by delusions, memory loss, and disorientation.
She then precipitously moved the children to another town several hours from the father. The children saw their father for several months after the separation on brief visits. However, when it became apparent that he would not return to the household and was seeing the woman with whom he had become involved, all three children eventually refused to have contact with him. The mother seemed unable to differentiate the father's unwillingness to continue their relationship from his desire to continue to parent the children.
She repeatedly referred to her husband's "abandonment of the family" and had conducted a "burial ceremony" during which she and the children symbolically buried the father so that the "new family," which did not include the father, could move forward. After repeatedly being frustrated in his attempt to make contact with the children, the father initiated an evaluation through Family Court.
The mother explained the children's decision to have no contact with their father as resulting from their being in Catholic schools and therefore intolerant of the idea of divorce.
She contended that she had encouraged the children to see their father but to no avail. However, information from neighbors and letters written by her to the father strongly suggested that she was motivated to sever the children's contact with the father and quite vociferous regarding her animosity towards him in their presence. Psychological testing suggested that the father relied on denial for dealing with conflict, was somewhat oversensitive in interpersonal relationships, but otherwise outgoing and sociable.
There was also the suggestion of some narcissism in his dealings with others. The mother's psychological testing was invalidated by considerable defensiveness characteristic of individuals who deny psychological problems, are unsophisticated psychologically, and who claim excessive virtue.
The testing also suggested that she was apt to be inflexible, unrealistic. The evaluation concluded that it was the mother's inability to differentiate her own needs from those of the children that had led to the children's alienation from their father.
The evaluator recommended that the custody of D and E be immediately and temporarily changed to the father for two months while the mother sought therapy for herself and C.
However, the court denied that recommendation but did order visitations to begin immediately for all three children. Only after several months delay did the children begin therapy and brief visits with their father.
Following several more months of therapy and contact with the father only during the therapy sessions, D asked to stay over night with his father. The mother reacted with rage, as though D had betrayed her.
However, with the support of his counselor and father, 13 was able to follow through on his wish to spend alternate weekends with his father. C, however, continued to refuse to have any contact with her father and E continued to have only brief daytime visits on alternate weekends. The mother found her son's proactive relationship with his father intolerable and within nine months sent him to live with the father claiming D had become abusive and unmanageable.
In fourteen of the sixteen cases in this study, the mother had primary custody and was the alienating parent. In one case, the non-custodial mother was the alienating parent and in one case, the non-custodial father was the alienating parent. There were a total of 26 children 14 girls and 12 boys in these 16 families and 21 of the 26 children appeared to be involved in the alienation dynamic with a parent.
Twelve of the alienated children were female and nine were male. The length of the marriage prior to final separation was tabulated. In two of the cases, there was no marriage and in three more cases the marriages lasted less than six months. One marriage ended after four years, six had survived between five and ten years, and four had lasted between eleven and fifteen years.
The ages of the alienated children at the time of parental separation ranged from in utero four cases to fourteen years of age and appeared evenly distributed across age brackets. The cases were analyzed to determine the approximate amount of time between the separation and the onset of alienation, as determined by the clinician retrospectively. In five of the cases, onset appeared to be coincident with the separation. In two of the cases, alienation appeared within six months after separation.
In four more cases, the alienation became apparent from one to two years after separation. In the final four cases, the alienation occurred between three and six years after separation. In looking at interventions to deal with the alienation from a parent, a wide range of both legal and clinical processes were identified.
In three of the cases, a change of custody away from the alienating parent or a strict limitation of that parent's contact with the child ren was implemented by the court system. In all three cases, this was successful in eradicating the alienation.
There were no cases in which a change of custody occurred but the alienation continued. In the other thirteen cases, various interventions were tried, ranging from therapy for each of the parents individually, therapy for the parents together, therapy for the children with the alienated parent, therapy fur the children with the alienating parent, and the assignment of a Guardian Ad Litem to the case.
In two of these cases, the children were evaluated as having experienced "some" or "minimal" improvement in their relationship with the alienated parent. In the other eleven cases, there was no improvement and in two of these cases, the alienation was evaluated as "worse" after these interventions.
These cases exemplify the wide diversity and complex nature of the "parental alienation syndrome" as it is played out in parental access disputes. In contrast to Gardner's , , anecdotal description of cases, this study attempted to analyze the salient characteristics of selected cases meeting Gardner's criteria for parental alienation. These cases suggest that the syndrome can occur without reference to the length of the relationship prior to separation, can occur immediately following separation, or not until many years after the divorce.
It can occur in very young children as well as with teens who have previously enjoyed a lengthy and positive post-divorce relationship with the alienated parent. It can involve all children in the family constellation or only one of the children. The alienating parent is most often the custodial mother but alienation by non-custodial fathers or mothers was also observed. Then was a wide range in the severity of symptoms of PAS.
It may be true that some elements of PAS are present to some degree in a majority of divorcing families. This was almost complete when Schwitters left Norway for the United Kingdom in It burnt down in and no photos survive. It is sometimes described as a fourth Merzbau, although Schwitters himself only ever referred to three.
The interior has now been removed and will eventually be exhibited in the Romsdal Museum in Molde, Norway. Schwitters composed and performed an early example of sound poetry , Ursonate —; a translation of the title is Original Sonata or Primeval Sonata. The poem was influenced by Raoul Hausmann's poem "fmsbw" which Schwitters heard recited by Hausmann in Prague , He subsequently performed it regularly, both developing and extending it.
He published his notations for the recital in the last Merz periodical in , although he would continue to develop the piece for at least the next ten years. As the political situation in Germany under the Nazis continued to deteriorate throughout the s, his work began to be included in the Entartete Kunst Degenerate Art touring exhibition organised by the Nazi party from He lost his contract with Hanover City Council in and examples of his work in German museums were confiscated and publicly ridiculed in By the time his close friends Christof and Luise Spengemann and their son Walter were arrested by the Gestapo in August  the situation had clearly become perilous.
On 2 January Schwitters, wanted for an "interview" with the Gestapo,  fled to Norway to join his son Ernst, who had already left Germany on 26 December His wife Helma decided to remain in Hanover, to manage their four properties. The joint celebrations for his mother Henriette's 80th birthday and his son Ernst's engagement, held in Oslo on 2 June , would be the last time the two met. Schwitters started a second Merzbau while in exile in Lysaker nearby Oslo , in but abandoned it in when the Nazis invaded; this Merzbau was subsequently destroyed in a fire in For decades this building was more or less left to rot, but measures have now been taken to preserve the interior.
By now officially an 'enemy alien', he was moved between various internment camps in Scotland and England before arriving on 17 July in Hutchinson Camp in the Isle of Man.
The camp was situated in a collection of terraced houses around Hutchinson Square in Douglas. The camp soon comprised some 1, internees by end of July ,  almost all of whom were German or Austrian.
The camp was soon known as "the artist's camp", comprising as it did many artists, writers, university professors and other intellectuals. He was soon provided studio space and took on students, many of whom would later become significant artists in their own right. At least in the early days of the camp's existence, there was a shortage of art supplies which meant that the internees had to be resourceful to obtain the materials they needed: A musty, sour, indescribable stink which came from three Dada sculptures which he had created from porridge, no plaster of Paris being available.
The porridge had developed mildew and the statues were covered with greenish hair and bluish excrements of an unknown type of bacteria. Schwitters was well-liked in the camp and was a welcome distraction from the internment they were suffering.
Fellow internees would later recall fondly his curious habits of sleeping under his bed and barking like a dog, as well as his regular Dadaist readings and performances.
For the outside world he always tried to put up a good show, but in the quietness of the room I shared with him [ Schwitters applied as early as October for release with the appeal written in English: But all things are equal. If I stay here, then I have plenty to occupy myself. If I am released, then I will enjoy freedom. If I manage to leave for the U. You carry your own joy with you wherever you go. Schwitters was finally released on 21 November , with the help of an intervention from Alexander Dorner, Rhode Island School of Design.
After obtaining his freedom Schwitters moved to London, hoping to make good on the contacts that he had built up over his period of internment. He first moved to an attic flat at 3 St. It was here that he met his future companion, Edith Thomas:. He called her Wantee, because she was always offering tea. He exhibited in a number of galleries in the city but with little success; at his first solo exhibition at The Modern Art Gallery in December , forty works were displayed, priced between 15 and 40 guineas , but only one was bought.
Pictures such as Small Merzpicture With Many Parts ,  for example, used objects found on a beach, including pebbles and smooth shards of porcelain. In October he learnt that his Merzbau in Hanover had been destroyed in allied bombing. In April he suffered his first stroke, at the age of 56, which left him temporarily paralyzed on one side of his body.
His wife Helma died of cancer on 29 October , although Schwitters only heard of her death in December. He moved there permanently on 26 June , to 2 Gale Crescent Ambleside. However, after another stroke in February of the following year and further illness, he and Edith moved to a more easily accessible house at 4 Millans Park.
During his time in Ambleside Schwitters created a sequence of proto- pop art pictures, such as For Käte , , after the encouragement from his friend, Käte Steinitz. In March , Schwitters decided to recreate the Merzbau and found a suitable location in a barn at Cylinders Farm, Elterwater , which was owned by Harry Pierce, whose portrait Schwitters had been commissioned to paint.
Schwitters worked on the Merzbarn daily, travelling the five miles between his home and the barn, except for when illness kept him away. On 7 January he received the news that he had been granted British citizenship.
The following day, on 8 January, Schwitters died from acute pulmonary edema and myocarditis , in Kendal Hospital. He was buried on 10 January at St. His grave was unmarked until when a stone was erected with the inscription Kurt Schwitters — Creator of Merz. The stone remains as a memorial even though his body was disinterred and reburied in the Engesohde Cemetery in Hanover in , the grave being marked with a marble copy of his sculpture Die Herbstzeitlose.
Schwitters, Merz -drawing 47 , , collage on board. Schwitters, Merz -drawing 85, Zig-Zag Red , , collage. Schwitters, Merz Wriedt , , collage.